Review on the use of alternative carbon sources in EAF steelmaking

Abstract:  Steelmaking in the electric arc furnace (EAF), either scrap-based or based on hydrogen direct reduced iron, will in future contribute substantially to the reduction of CO2 emissions in the iron and steel industry. However, there still will be the need to introduce carbon into the EAF process either to carburize the steel or to create foaming slag to improve the energy efficiency of the melting process. So, to reach the emission reduction goals set around the world, it will be necessary to substitute fossil charge and injection carbon used in EAF steelmaking with alternative carbon sources.

This review presents the recent research on carbon-neutral biomass-based and circular rubber or plastics-based carbon sources and their potential to substitute fossil charge or injection carbon in the EAF process. It also discusses the current state-of-the art and suggests further opportunities and needs for research and development to use alternative carbon sources to produce a really green and carbon neutral and/or fully circular steel.

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